Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive mental disease that occurs due to the degeneration of the brain. It can manifest itself in the middle and old age thus causing premature senility. An interest in the disease arises from the fact that the condition affects a person’s cognitive ability. It raises the curiosity of how the brain changes to the extent that a healthy a functioning brain ends up damaged and almost non-functioning. A person that was once healthy and active may have Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in a loss of general body functioning. The cause of Alzheimer’s disease remains unknown although the early onset of the disease is associated with a genetic mutation. The late occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, however, occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. People with APOE?4, have an increased of early onset of Alzheimer’s disease although people without the gene can also acquire the condition (Villemagne, & Ames, 2013).

Moreover, persons with Down syndrome have an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease because of the existence of the extra chromosome 21 with the gene that produces the harmful amyloid. Conditions such as heart problems, diabetes, and high blood pressure have also been associated with a decline in cognitive functioning that increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. According to Qui & Strauss (2009), approximately 25 million people are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. In the Europe, the age-standardized prevalence in 65+ is 64% for dementia and 4.4% for Alzheimer’s disease. In America, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in individuals over 70 years is 9.7%. The number of people who have Alzheimer’s disease is anticipated to double in the next twenty years.

The first symptom for persons with Alzheimer’s disease is a cognitive impairment that begins to manifest through memory loss. The memory loss may not be immediate, but the individual may start by demonstrating increased forgetfulness and repetition of statements. The mild cognitive impairment may be difficult to detect, but as the condition progresses, it becomes obvious. The individual may demonstrate complete memory loss; he may wander and get the loss (Jack, 2013). The individual may also take longer to perform tasks that he used to take a short duration to complete. In the severest form of the condition, the individual loses the ability to communicate and may not recognize family members.

The symptoms begin and vary with the changes that the brain is experiencing. Alzheimer’s disease is progressive thus the damage to the brain can begin decades before the symptoms begin to show. The brain begins to have abnormal deposits of amyloid plaques and tau tangles (Selkoe, & Hardy, 2016). The result is the healthy neurons stop functioning and lose connections with each other. Damage first begins at the hippocampus, the part responsible for formation of memory. The damage to the hippocampus marks the indicator of the first sign of Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss.

The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease involves a variety of test, examination and a look at the individual history. A physician may also perform a variety of tests to measure the patients, memory, problem-solving abilities, and language capacity. Laboratory tests such as urine and blood tests may be performed to eliminate other diseases that may manifest similar symptoms. Moreover, a CT, MRI, and PET test may be performed to rule out other possible causes of symptoms. Conditions such as stroke, brain tumors, and Parkinson’s diseases can expose an individual to symptoms such as those of Alzheimer’s disease.

There is no single intervention that is suitable for the management of Alzheimer’s disease. A patient may require a diversity of drugs and intervention to manage the condition (Liu & Shen, 2014). Currently, the emphasis is on helping patients maintain their mental function, manage their behavioral symptoms, and slow down the progression of the disease. There have been intensive studies to develop therapies that target the genetic, molecular and cellular mechanism of the disease. Medication such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and memantine are given to manage mild to severe Alzheimer’s. The drugs work by regulating the neurotransmitters, maintain thinking, memory and the patient’s communication skills. The medication does not work for all patients, while for others it may work for a while before they no longer do.

Unlike factors such as age and genetics that may be uncontrolled about the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, lifestyle and health factors can be controlled. Exercise and physical activity can ensure a healthy brain as the activities encourage the formation of blood vessels through the brain. Moreover, exercise and physical activity increase the number of connections between nerve cells thus ensuring a healthy brain. Exercise stimulates the brain thus keeping it healthy and less prone to degeneration. Scientists have also discovered that a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables reduces the rate of cognitive decline (Norton, & Brayne, 2014). Foods containing imega-3 fatty acids such as salmons and fish also reduce the occurrence of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain. Moreover, the engagement in mentally stimulating activities such as reading and engaging is sports activities reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

School uniform policy


The assessment of the debate of whether children should wear school uniform is one that has been in existence for long amid the assertion that schools in the US should adopt a uniform policy. The adoption of the uniforms rules had been considered as a means of stopping children from dressing in gang colors in most of the troubled urban areas. Later, there were assertions that the introduction of school uniforms resulted in the better discipline while the results of these students improved, an issue that encouraged different districts as well as schools to implement the change. However, issues that support the desire not to have uniforms in the school incline me into supporting those who argue against the introduction of the uniform policy.

One of the assertions by the proponents of the school uniform policy is that it leads to the creation of a desirable feeling of belonging to an institution for the students wearing the uniform. The assertion is, however, wrong, as making the wearing of uniforms by the students will only lead to the hampering of the students’ original thinking. Compelling children to subscribe to a certain way of thinking hampers their independence in future, being unable to make their opinions without the assistance of others effectively. Everyone has a right to individuality, making one’s decisions as well as expressing their personality (Wilken, Ilani, & Van Aardt, P 159-184). Compelling children to wear the certain type of clothing thus is an infringement of their right of free expression. The assertion, in this case, is that the protection of the right to free expression is central to the development of the personalities of the young people, and choosing what to wear to should be left within their purview.

The assertion that adopting the policy on school uniforms is going to be a way of ensuring that the students are more focused on their education and not their clothes have been used to support the adoption of the uniform policy. The fact when it comes to the assessment of the issue is that school uniforms have become a means of promoting the element of conformity over the case for individuality. The culture that characterizes the current school environments is that promote the appreciation of the diversity of the children, which implies that the efforts that are geared towards the enforcement of the standardized dress code are a contradiction to this culture (Gentile, Elisabetta, & Imberman, P1-17). Further, the issue of the gendered schools that dictate boys have to wear pants while girls wear skirts, it brings new challenges in a society that is keen in accommodating the transgendered individuals, gender non-conforming as well as the gender fluid students who are left feeling ostracized.

There has been the assertion by the supporters of the policy on school uniforms that they assist in the creation of the leveled playing ground among the students from different background in addition to the reduction of peer pressure and bullying. The assertion has however been found to be flawed in that the adoption of school uniforms does not reduce the cases of bullying and that it has been seen to increase the case of bullying (Mimmo, P4-5). The issue here is that the introduction of the compulsory school uniforms the doubling of fights in the middle schools in the same year. The fact that there does not exist official data supporting the assertion that the introduction of the compulsory uniforms serves to reduce the case of violence in schools further serves to water down the argument of the parties supporting the introduction.

The argument that introducing uniform policy serves to enhance the pride of school, the unity as well as the community spirit. The fact of the matter, however, is that school uniforms fail to address an issue of academic preparedness, school attendance, and the exam results. The overall assertion is that the adoption of the school uniforms does not have any impact on the desire of the students to attend schools, behavioral improvements as well as issues of substance abuse (Brookshire, P6-18. It has become evident through research that school uniforms have no impact on the performance of the second-grade students in mathematics and reading examination, with the case being the same for the 10th-grade mathematics, reading, and history and science examinations.

The further assertion that school uniforms help parents to save money and thus supporting the adoption of the school uniform policy has been negated by the fact that the time that is spent addressing the enforcement of the district the stakeholders from resolving the core issues affecting the schools (Bhembe & Mfanzile, P20.35). The time and resources spent on the assessment of how the policy is going to be implemented only served to detract the concerned parties from the efforts meant to reduce the rates of crime as well as enhance school performance.


The debate on whether the schools should make school uniforms compulsory for all students has been raging for a long time. Proponents of the policy have been working hard to demonstrate the diverse issues that make it necessary to adopt the policy, with reducing of burying, enhancing performance, reduce costs for the parents being among the main issues. It is, however, evident that the policy will produce more harm that the good it is intimated to produce, with most of these assertions used to support its adoption found not to be true.

Engineering R and D Services Outsourcing Market – Outlook and Analysis for Future Growth

Global engineering R&D services outsourcing market is anticipated to reach more than USD 650 billion by 2025 according to a new report published by Polaris Market Research. The major factors which are driving this market is the access to low cost highly skilled resources which can work towards complex tasks of not only designing and testing but also on validation, simulation and execution. Companies are moving from business process outsourcing to knowledge process outsourcing and major industry verticals such as automotive, consumer electronics, semiconductors, aerospace and telecom are providing huge opportunities to the consulting companies.

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The traction of offshore outsourcing can be seen owing to the low cost and added capabilities from the service providers. There are dedicated ER&D service providers which are not only providing basic services but also, they are jointly investing with the companies to expand their businesses in growing markets and geographies. Companies are also focusing on expanding their market reach along with faster turnaround times from these providers. These are some of the major advantages for the companies to outsource their services.

The market for ER&D services has evolved from outsourcing of simple low-cost engineering services to capacity augmentation. At present companies are focusing more on reduced timelines, increased productivity and quality of outsourcing services. Countries such as India, China are among the biggest markets for ER&D service providers. Growing number of engineering professionals every year coupled with low cost of service have pushed the market for ER&D Outsourcing in this region.

Companies in North America and Europe are considered to spend more on these services however, Asia Pacific is the largest market for the ER&D service providers. Countries such as India and China have pushed the market for ER&D and are estimated to continue the trend over the forecast period. Applications in the automotive, telecom, consumer electronics and aerospace segments is considered to have large market share in 2017. There has been an increase in adoption in the offshore services as compared to onsite service due to low costs and highly skilled professionals on the offshore locations. The offshore outsourcing type would grow at a higher rate during the forecast period as compared to its counterpart.