Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive mental disease that occurs due to the degeneration of the brain. It can manifest itself in the middle and old age thus causing premature senility. An interest in the disease arises from the fact that the condition affects a person’s cognitive ability. It raises the curiosity of how the brain changes to the extent that a healthy a functioning brain ends up damaged and almost non-functioning. A person that was once healthy and active may have Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in a loss of general body functioning. The cause of Alzheimer’s disease remains unknown although the early onset of the disease is associated with a genetic mutation. The late occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, however, occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. People with APOE?4, have an increased of early onset of Alzheimer’s disease although people without the gene can also acquire the condition (Villemagne, & Ames, 2013).

Moreover, persons with Down syndrome have an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease because of the existence of the extra chromosome 21 with the gene that produces the harmful amyloid. Conditions such as heart problems, diabetes, and high blood pressure have also been associated with a decline in cognitive functioning that increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. According to Qui & Strauss (2009), approximately 25 million people are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. In the Europe, the age-standardized prevalence in 65+ is 64% for dementia and 4.4% for Alzheimer’s disease. In America, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in individuals over 70 years is 9.7%. The number of people who have Alzheimer’s disease is anticipated to double in the next twenty years.

The first symptom for persons with Alzheimer’s disease is a cognitive impairment that begins to manifest through memory loss. The memory loss may not be immediate, but the individual may start by demonstrating increased forgetfulness and repetition of statements. The mild cognitive impairment may be difficult to detect, but as the condition progresses, it becomes obvious. The individual may demonstrate complete memory loss; he may wander and get the loss (Jack, 2013). The individual may also take longer to perform tasks that he used to take a short duration to complete. In the severest form of the condition, the individual loses the ability to communicate and may not recognize family members.

The symptoms begin and vary with the changes that the brain is experiencing. Alzheimer’s disease is progressive thus the damage to the brain can begin decades before the symptoms begin to show. The brain begins to have abnormal deposits of amyloid plaques and tau tangles (Selkoe, & Hardy, 2016). The result is the healthy neurons stop functioning and lose connections with each other. Damage first begins at the hippocampus, the part responsible for formation of memory. The damage to the hippocampus marks the indicator of the first sign of Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss.

The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease involves a variety of test, examination and a look at the individual history. A physician may also perform a variety of tests to measure the patients, memory, problem-solving abilities, and language capacity. Laboratory tests such as urine and blood tests may be performed to eliminate other diseases that may manifest similar symptoms. Moreover, a CT, MRI, and PET test may be performed to rule out other possible causes of symptoms. Conditions such as stroke, brain tumors, and Parkinson’s diseases can expose an individual to symptoms such as those of Alzheimer’s disease.

There is no single intervention that is suitable for the management of Alzheimer’s disease. A patient may require a diversity of drugs and intervention to manage the condition (Liu & Shen, 2014). Currently, the emphasis is on helping patients maintain their mental function, manage their behavioral symptoms, and slow down the progression of the disease. There have been intensive studies to develop therapies that target the genetic, molecular and cellular mechanism of the disease. Medication such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and memantine are given to manage mild to severe Alzheimer’s. The drugs work by regulating the neurotransmitters, maintain thinking, memory and the patient’s communication skills. The medication does not work for all patients, while for others it may work for a while before they no longer do.

Unlike factors such as age and genetics that may be uncontrolled about the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, lifestyle and health factors can be controlled. Exercise and physical activity can ensure a healthy brain as the activities encourage the formation of blood vessels through the brain. Moreover, exercise and physical activity increase the number of connections between nerve cells thus ensuring a healthy brain. Exercise stimulates the brain thus keeping it healthy and less prone to degeneration. Scientists have also discovered that a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables reduces the rate of cognitive decline (Norton, & Brayne, 2014). Foods containing imega-3 fatty acids such as salmons and fish also reduce the occurrence of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain. Moreover, the engagement in mentally stimulating activities such as reading and engaging is sports activities reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

What Is NTA UGC Net And JRF? A Quick Guide To UGC NET-JRF Examinations

UGC NET-JRF examinations are all set to commence every year twice. If you are looking to crack the UGC NET-JRF examination, then you need to be aware of all the details associated with these exams. In this post, we will provide a quick guide to NTA UGC Net and JRF exams so that you can make an informed decision.

What is UGC and JRF?
NET – National Eligibility Test is a national level test administered by the University Grants Commission to award Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) to eligible candidates. It’s open to postgraduate students who want to undertake research studies in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences. It typically occurs twice per year and is typically taken in June and December. The fellows selected through this exam are required to get admitted to an M.Phil/PhD program at a UGC recognized institution.

The JRF (Junior Research Fellowship) is given to postgraduate students who are admitted to an M.Phil./PhD programme, and after qualifying the UGC-NET/CSIR NET exam. The fellowship is tenable for 2 years in which the fellows receive a monthly stipend of up to INR 28,000. It’s a very good opportunity for graduate students who need some financial support while pursuing their higher studies. When they finish their tenure they’re promoted as Senior Research Fellows based on their performance.

Master’s degree or equivalent applicants, who have already taken and passed the final exam for admission, can be considered for the award of JRF after approval from the head of department in their respective fields.

How do you apply for the NET examination?
To see if you’re eligible to appear for the NTA test, visit the official website of the association. There’s a specific date range in which you can apply, and the application period also corresponds with this. You’ll need to complete registration on the NTA website and proceed with the procedure like specified.

How to Prepare for an NTA UGC Net Exam?
“The National Testing Agency (NTA) UGC NET-JRF examinations are conducted for candidates seeking admission into doctoral programs in various universities and colleges in India. The examination is an undergraduate level examination that aims to assess the academic skills and knowledge of the candidates.

The preparation for the examination involves familiarizing oneself with the syllabus, studying the objectives of each section, and focusing on practice questions. It is important to note that no single strategy can guarantee success in this exam; instead, a well-rounded approach is necessary. Some helpful tips for preparing for UGC NET-JRF exams include:

Understanding the Syllabus: The syllabus contains detailed information on all the topics covered in the exam. It is important to familiarize yourself with it so that you know what to expect from the questions.
Studying Sample Questions: In order to better understand how the questions are written, it is helpful to study sample questions from previous years’ exams. This will help you get a sense of how question types are structured and what strategies might be most effective when answering them.
Practice Makes Perfect: Although it is important to study and prepare for UGC NET-JRF exams, it is equally as important to take practice tests. This will help you get used to taking the actual exam and improve your chances of passing it on first attempt.”
4. Joining Online Courses: There are many online courses that can help candidates prepare for NTA UGC NET-JRF exams. These courses typically provide access to practice questions, study materials, and other resources. By joining BEST RAS Online coaching in jaipur, you can get started on preparing for the exam right away.

Conclusion
There is no one definitive answer to this question since the method of scoring can vary from one examiner to another, depending on their individual preferences and approach. However, some general tips that may help you score well in these exams include: striving for accuracy and comprehensive understanding of the questions, focusing on key concepts while answering questions, taking notes during the UGC Net JRF online courses, and practicing frequently.

Ethics and Corporate Responsibility in the Workplace and the World

1: Describe the key characteristics of a stakeholder and determine all the stakeholders within the PharmaCARE scenario.

Stakeholders of a typical organization might include employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and managers (Phillips, 2003). There are several characteristics of a stakeholder of a company, among which include the following. First is that a stakeholder characteristic of a stakeholder is that he/she in one way or the other funds the organization through investing in it. He/she is thus affected by the outcomes or results of the company’s progress or the success or failures of the organization’s projects. Another key characteristic of a stakeholder is that he/she is in the company’s chain of accountability. Decisions made by the company’s officials may affect them directly or indirectly (Phillips, 2003). He/she is also responsible for the company’s good name. He/she is thus responsible for maintaining the company’s good reputation. Among the stakeholders of the PharmaCARE are the CEO, rest of the PharmaCARE’s executives and its Shareholders/stockholders of the enterprise. Others include the healers of the company in Colberia, the Colberians that work for PharmaCARE, the state government of New Jersey, the US Federal government and the communities affected by the lobbying of PharmaCARE.

The following is a justification of why some of the agencies or groups are considered stakeholders of PharmaCARE. One example is the state government in New Jersey. This is a stakeholder since its interested with PharmaCARE describing the state laws are regulations that PharmaCARE is required to comply with, e.g. paying taxes. Similarly, the federal government relates in the same way with PharmaCARE.The healers in Colberia can be considered close stakeholders with PharmaCARE since the facility obtains local remedies from them and possibly markets them. PharmaCARE has also been involved actively in lobbying against many environmental laws. This action has in many ways adversely affected the environment of the United States. It is from this perspective that every citizen of the United States and the federal government of the US become stakeholders of PharmaCARE (Phillips, 2003).

Q2: Analyze the human rights issues presented by PharmaCARE’s treatment of the Colberia’s indigenous population versus that of its executives. Recommend at least three (3) changes PharmaCARE can make to be more ethical going forward.

Various human rights issues arise as regards the running of corporations in the world. It has been determined that many corporations today are expanding their business enterprises. However, they are doing so by erecting branches at less regulated poorer countries where they have the power and audacity of violating human rights in many ways such as polluting the environment through harmful emissions and cutting down trees (Ingulli, 2010). To aggravate the situation, they do so with the cooperation of that countries government, by bribing the top officials. In any case, these corporations’ branches are set up businesses places where the local indigenous people are poor and living in less than standard conditions. The corporations will thus earn labor from less resistance indigenous people who they pay meager wages, another violation of human rights.

An assessment of PharmaCARE case shows prudently that the human rights of the people of Colberia’s have been violated, as regards the United Nations stipulation. This UN disclaimer applied, in this case, says that Transnational Corporations, as well as business Enterprises, have a general obligation to the indigenous people of Colberia. Along with it is the right to equal opportunity and non-discriminatory treatment of the local people (Brenker, 2010). In black and white, it’s evident that PharmaCARE has exploited the people of Colberia in the bid to further its own agenda. For instance, they have taken advantage of the local healers who have been lured into sharing their knowledge about indigenous cures just for free. In another dimension, the workers are reported to be paid meager wages ($1 per day), which make them live in substandard conditions as compared to PharmCARE staff who live lavishly at the expense of local people. These poor people reside in huts which have neither electricity nor clean water. Conversely, their ‘employers’ the executives of PharmaCARE, are living luxuriously in compounds which have access to all essential amenities requires to live a good life and added prestigious amenities such as swimming pools, golf course, and tennis courts (Cory, 2001).

Going forward, I would recommend that PharmaCARE provides transportation means for the benefit of workers. These transportation means will help workers who live far from the premises and also aid in bringing harvested goods from the jungle to the processing area of the organization. That will increase efficiency and remove the burden and tire/exhaustion of employees. Secondly, I recommend that PharmaCARE increases the wages workers. Rather than a dollar per day, it’s ethical that they pay them the same amount hourly. That will help them better their living standards. Lastly, I would recommend that PharmCARE involves itself with corporate social responsibility. For instance, they could reinvest a little of their profits in enhancing Colberia’s current infrastructure. They could also create housing for the workers within the manufacturing plant to better their lives as some may never be able to erect better housing (Brenker, 2010).

Q3: Assess PharmCARE’s environmental initiative against the backdrop of its anti-environmental lobbying efforts and Colberian activities. Support the position

PharmaCARE instigated an initiative by the name We CARE about YOUR world®. This initiative pledges PharmaCARE commitment to the environment but ironically, the company’s lobbying efforts have successfully demeaned the environmental laws and regulations and that of the Superfund tax by CERCLA (Ingulli, 2010). This law imposed heavy taxes and fines on chemical and petroleum firms particularly those that release hazardous substances that jeopardize people and environmental health (Cory, 2001)Apparently, the activities of PharmaCARE in Colberia are seen to contradict their initiative staunchly. We CARE about YOUR world®. Obviously, the company does not care about Colberia and its people. The company distorts the previously fresh environmental and deplorably treats Colberian people. As a matter of fact, PharmaCARE has done nothing good for the benefit of the indigenous people. It has taken advantage of them without caring.

Q4: Decide whether or not PharmaCARE’s actions with respect to the indigenous people of Colberia would be ethical in accordance with each of the following ethical theories:

Utilitarianism
As defined by Shapiro (2011) as a normative ethical theory that distinguishes the right from the wrong solely by judging from the outcomes (consequences). Under this theory, PharmCARE’s activities are not ethical. If so, PharmaCARE actions would have caused happiness to the local people. However, dread is what Colberians suffer.

Deontology
This theory obligates people to do as it obligates them when faced with an ethical dilemma. As such, a person ought to follow his/her obligation to another individual as doing this is what is considered ethically correct (Rainbow, 2002). Following this theory, PharmaCARE actions to the Colberia’s indigenous people cannot be regarded as morally right. The company exploits the indigenous people by paying them meager wages making them lead substandard lives (Cory, 2001).

Virtue Ethics
Virtue ethics are those actions that one does for the good of another by following his/her instincts rather than laws, customs or culture. PharmaCARE officials are short of these virtues and as such, their actions are not ethically correct. Executives have no mercy to the poor people and does nothing keep them motivated for the job. They treat the employees like slaves. Lack of virtual ethics denies the company to be ranked an ethically run organization.

Ethics of care
Ethics of care requires that both parties in play gain something from common activities. However, PharmCARE takes advantage of everything to profit themselves (Brenker, 2010). Indigenous people sacrifice their efforts but end up on the losing side. They earn low wages, and their environment is destroyed (Cory, 2001).

My own moral/ethical compass

After examining the case, I am of the free opinion that PharmaCARE violates the civil rights of the people. They have taken the environment into their hands and made people their working objects. They have no respect for human life and expose them to danger through polluting the environment. They pay meager dues to these people just they are poor and have no power to demand fairness. PharmCARE has to reconsider their CRS status. The executives should understand that caring for the employees is for the best of it too. Employees are like engines of the company and motivating them is the same as re-energizing the engine which makes the vehicle move more swiftly to accomplish the desires of the owner (Brenker, 2010).

Q5: Compare PharmaCARE’s actions with those of at least one (1) real-world company, whose corporate activities led to ethical, environmental, or workplace safety issues and financial loss. Analyze the similarities and differences between PharmaCARE and the company that you chose.

The activities of PharmCARE are likened to those of British Petroleum Company BP sometimes back. British Petroleum was involved in a serious issue which involved spillage of over 30 gallons of crude oil, a situation that has come to be known as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. In this case scenario, 11 lives were lost and some injured. The company had at the time not installed a back-up acoustic switch claiming that it was not cost-effective at the time. The oil spillage made the environment dangerous as people lived in fear of explosions. More so, the environment was polluted. Apparently, poor people had no means to pull out of the area, and BP did nothing about it. The same case applies to PharmaCARE scenario. They built a large manufacturing plant in Africa took away the land, polluted the environment and exploited the indigenous people just because they were poor, desperate and short of knowledge of their human rights. They work for a large company but under dangerous conditions. They work long hours yet receive unfair wages. They, however, are not aware of ways to demand their rights. Similarly, the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill led to the damage of countless miles of shoreline which made fishing impossible. Fish processors had to shut down meaning that the local people were left without means of securing the daily bread (Rainbow, 2002).

British Petroleum redesigned its corporate insignia of going green that suggested that “the company was looking past oil and gas toward an eco-friendly future of renewable energy.” That is just similar with what PharmaCARE initiated through erecting a logo which said “WE CARE about YOUR health®. These two logos of the two companies stated that they wanted to change and in future enjoy the reputation as caring, ethical and well-run companies through producing high-quality products that save lives and through environmental friendly ways (Ingulli, 2010). Comparing BP and PharmaCARE, it can be found that both ended up devolved into unethical practices. BP, for instance, failed to acquire equipment that would have doubled safety for the oil rig. Instead, BP officials claimed they did not need such equipment. They claimed that the cost of it was too much and following the fact that this was not a required by the government, they did not purchase it. The same case applies to PharmaCARE, which does not want to feel the cost of social responsibility. They use their large company status to acquire land in Africa to set up a plant at the expense of the little power of the indigenous people.