Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive mental disease that occurs due to the degeneration of the brain. It can manifest itself in the middle and old age thus causing premature senility. An interest in the disease arises from the fact that the condition affects a person’s cognitive ability. It raises the curiosity of how the brain changes to the extent that a healthy a functioning brain ends up damaged and almost non-functioning. A person that was once healthy and active may have Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in a loss of general body functioning. The cause of Alzheimer’s disease remains unknown although the early onset of the disease is associated with a genetic mutation. The late occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, however, occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. People with APOE?4, have an increased of early onset of Alzheimer’s disease although people without the gene can also acquire the condition (Villemagne, & Ames, 2013).

Moreover, persons with Down syndrome have an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease because of the existence of the extra chromosome 21 with the gene that produces the harmful amyloid. Conditions such as heart problems, diabetes, and high blood pressure have also been associated with a decline in cognitive functioning that increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. According to Qui & Strauss (2009), approximately 25 million people are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. In the Europe, the age-standardized prevalence in 65+ is 64% for dementia and 4.4% for Alzheimer’s disease. In America, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in individuals over 70 years is 9.7%. The number of people who have Alzheimer’s disease is anticipated to double in the next twenty years.

The first symptom for persons with Alzheimer’s disease is a cognitive impairment that begins to manifest through memory loss. The memory loss may not be immediate, but the individual may start by demonstrating increased forgetfulness and repetition of statements. The mild cognitive impairment may be difficult to detect, but as the condition progresses, it becomes obvious. The individual may demonstrate complete memory loss; he may wander and get the loss (Jack, 2013). The individual may also take longer to perform tasks that he used to take a short duration to complete. In the severest form of the condition, the individual loses the ability to communicate and may not recognize family members.

The symptoms begin and vary with the changes that the brain is experiencing. Alzheimer’s disease is progressive thus the damage to the brain can begin decades before the symptoms begin to show. The brain begins to have abnormal deposits of amyloid plaques and tau tangles (Selkoe, & Hardy, 2016). The result is the healthy neurons stop functioning and lose connections with each other. Damage first begins at the hippocampus, the part responsible for formation of memory. The damage to the hippocampus marks the indicator of the first sign of Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss.

The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease involves a variety of test, examination and a look at the individual history. A physician may also perform a variety of tests to measure the patients, memory, problem-solving abilities, and language capacity. Laboratory tests such as urine and blood tests may be performed to eliminate other diseases that may manifest similar symptoms. Moreover, a CT, MRI, and PET test may be performed to rule out other possible causes of symptoms. Conditions such as stroke, brain tumors, and Parkinson’s diseases can expose an individual to symptoms such as those of Alzheimer’s disease.

There is no single intervention that is suitable for the management of Alzheimer’s disease. A patient may require a diversity of drugs and intervention to manage the condition (Liu & Shen, 2014). Currently, the emphasis is on helping patients maintain their mental function, manage their behavioral symptoms, and slow down the progression of the disease. There have been intensive studies to develop therapies that target the genetic, molecular and cellular mechanism of the disease. Medication such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and memantine are given to manage mild to severe Alzheimer’s. The drugs work by regulating the neurotransmitters, maintain thinking, memory and the patient’s communication skills. The medication does not work for all patients, while for others it may work for a while before they no longer do.

Unlike factors such as age and genetics that may be uncontrolled about the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, lifestyle and health factors can be controlled. Exercise and physical activity can ensure a healthy brain as the activities encourage the formation of blood vessels through the brain. Moreover, exercise and physical activity increase the number of connections between nerve cells thus ensuring a healthy brain. Exercise stimulates the brain thus keeping it healthy and less prone to degeneration. Scientists have also discovered that a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables reduces the rate of cognitive decline (Norton, & Brayne, 2014). Foods containing imega-3 fatty acids such as salmons and fish also reduce the occurrence of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain. Moreover, the engagement in mentally stimulating activities such as reading and engaging is sports activities reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Engineering R and D Services Outsourcing Market – Outlook and Analysis for Future Growth

Global engineering R&D services outsourcing market is anticipated to reach more than USD 650 billion by 2025 according to a new report published by Polaris Market Research. The major factors which are driving this market is the access to low cost highly skilled resources which can work towards complex tasks of not only designing and testing but also on validation, simulation and execution. Companies are moving from business process outsourcing to knowledge process outsourcing and major industry verticals such as automotive, consumer electronics, semiconductors, aerospace and telecom are providing huge opportunities to the consulting companies.

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The traction of offshore outsourcing can be seen owing to the low cost and added capabilities from the service providers. There are dedicated ER&D service providers which are not only providing basic services but also, they are jointly investing with the companies to expand their businesses in growing markets and geographies. Companies are also focusing on expanding their market reach along with faster turnaround times from these providers. These are some of the major advantages for the companies to outsource their services.

The market for ER&D services has evolved from outsourcing of simple low-cost engineering services to capacity augmentation. At present companies are focusing more on reduced timelines, increased productivity and quality of outsourcing services. Countries such as India, China are among the biggest markets for ER&D service providers. Growing number of engineering professionals every year coupled with low cost of service have pushed the market for ER&D Outsourcing in this region.

Companies in North America and Europe are considered to spend more on these services however, Asia Pacific is the largest market for the ER&D service providers. Countries such as India and China have pushed the market for ER&D and are estimated to continue the trend over the forecast period. Applications in the automotive, telecom, consumer electronics and aerospace segments is considered to have large market share in 2017. There has been an increase in adoption in the offshore services as compared to onsite service due to low costs and highly skilled professionals on the offshore locations. The offshore outsourcing type would grow at a higher rate during the forecast period as compared to its counterpart.

Online Buying and Traditional Buying

Currently, technology has continued to develop dramatically. It has therefore made lives more convenient. One convenience is the online shopping which remains renowned as a business strategy on The Internet. While there are differences in several ways, the two methods have many similarities. This paper will compare as well as contrast aspects between online buying and traditional buying. With the increasing popularity of the Internet and the increasing options to online shoppers, more people continue to turn to cyberspace for shopping needs. As a response, retailers continue to enhance online stores, giving customers similar comprehensive experience available at a mall.

Like traditional shopping, online buying gives a great variety of stores. Nearly any store typically found in malls correspond online store with similar items. From departmental stores to specialty ones, many retailers find through Internet search. In both options shopping experience provides a large item selection to choose from. If one is looking for dresses, a simple search end up yielding hundreds of dresses with various styles, sizes, shapes as well as colors. Similar to visiting a specialized department in the store, the criteria for search can become narrowed to present the particular results like cocktail dresses or sundresses. Many retailers give similar deals in store as well as on their website. Like in the mall, online stores always have seasonal as well as end-of-season items, in many case having extra incentives like free shipping for online buyers. The retailer’s site end up reflecting seasonal promotions present in-store and enable buyers to redeem coupons as well as gift cards. Sales and promotions will typically start and end on the same dates both in-store and online.

The other similarity is that both the two shopping options have an interactive experience. Through the enhanced features on many retailer websites, buyers manage to see how an item look like in other color, in different sizes, or send links to friends for feedback. The Victoria’s online store Secret, for example, allows buyers to click on the color swatches to alter the color of items then click through alternate brands to know the exact fit as well as shape. Similar to purchases at the mall, items purchased from online shops also get returned to retailers for a refund as well as an exchange with conditions varying depending on retailer’s policy. Like in mall stores, most online stores allow buyers to return items for a total full refund while others only allow for exchanges. As one would expect, returns as well as exchanges of some personal items like undergarments as well as toiletries get not accepted at malls or online.

The two business methods pose some distinctive features. A basic difference is time operation. For instance, customers may buy and view things every time they feel like because online shops operate on a 24-hour basis as well as seven days a week. Contrary, stores, supermarkets, markets, as well as plazas, begin in limit time like 8 am to 9 pm. Hence, online buying remain more useful as compared to traditional shopping particularly those without time or those always working with a computer like office workers. The Second difference is the mode of the exhibition (Odyssey & the Standard’ 2000). Traditional shopping has direct alternative to a product through touch as well as handling to ascertain their quality as well as their material. On the contrary, online shops only display items on the Internet for customers to image the producers through their mind pictures, information in every produce. Hence, face many difficulties in making choices. As a consequence, traditional buyers remain more attracted as compared to the online customer.

The third difference is the communication. In specific, online buyers have no capacity to negotiate directly with the sellers since they face a screen while traditional buyers have a face to face interaction and can bargain with respective sellers. Therefore, communication in online buying remains more interesting as compared to traditional shopping. Fourthly, the investment also contrasts between the online and the traditional buyers. For example, online business have no huge budget of leasing space, rent employee as well as décor store while traditional shops need more money. Additionally, online business managers to save money in the investment and they manage to expand and produce over the globe in short time, making online buying easy. Lastly, one of the advantages of online buying is convenience. Particularly, online buyer access products not only from within the nation but also from other countries. Hence, buyers get items by their computer irrespective of their area of stay.

To conclude, while there are differences between the two shopping methods, there are many similarities. Many factors propel people to choose the type of shopping suits their demands. Hence, both methods have advantages and disadvantages, and while making chooses between them, it remains critical to consider the situation. Irrespective of the method both the two enables buyers to get what they want and satisfy their consumer needs. Hence, if opportunity dictates, they can shop online, and the same should apply in traditional shopping.