What Is NTA UGC Net And JRF? A Quick Guide To UGC NET-JRF Examinations

UGC NET-JRF examinations are all set to commence every year twice. If you are looking to crack the UGC NET-JRF examination, then you need to be aware of all the details associated with these exams. In this post, we will provide a quick guide to NTA UGC Net and JRF exams so that you can make an informed decision.

What is UGC and JRF?
NET – National Eligibility Test is a national level test administered by the University Grants Commission to award Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) to eligible candidates. It’s open to postgraduate students who want to undertake research studies in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences. It typically occurs twice per year and is typically taken in June and December. The fellows selected through this exam are required to get admitted to an M.Phil/PhD program at a UGC recognized institution.

The JRF (Junior Research Fellowship) is given to postgraduate students who are admitted to an M.Phil./PhD programme, and after qualifying the UGC-NET/CSIR NET exam. The fellowship is tenable for 2 years in which the fellows receive a monthly stipend of up to INR 28,000. It’s a very good opportunity for graduate students who need some financial support while pursuing their higher studies. When they finish their tenure they’re promoted as Senior Research Fellows based on their performance.

Master’s degree or equivalent applicants, who have already taken and passed the final exam for admission, can be considered for the award of JRF after approval from the head of department in their respective fields.

How do you apply for the NET examination?
To see if you’re eligible to appear for the NTA test, visit the official website of the association. There’s a specific date range in which you can apply, and the application period also corresponds with this. You’ll need to complete registration on the NTA website and proceed with the procedure like specified.

How to Prepare for an NTA UGC Net Exam?
“The National Testing Agency (NTA) UGC NET-JRF examinations are conducted for candidates seeking admission into doctoral programs in various universities and colleges in India. The examination is an undergraduate level examination that aims to assess the academic skills and knowledge of the candidates.

The preparation for the examination involves familiarizing oneself with the syllabus, studying the objectives of each section, and focusing on practice questions. It is important to note that no single strategy can guarantee success in this exam; instead, a well-rounded approach is necessary. Some helpful tips for preparing for UGC NET-JRF exams include:

Understanding the Syllabus: The syllabus contains detailed information on all the topics covered in the exam. It is important to familiarize yourself with it so that you know what to expect from the questions.
Studying Sample Questions: In order to better understand how the questions are written, it is helpful to study sample questions from previous years’ exams. This will help you get a sense of how question types are structured and what strategies might be most effective when answering them.
Practice Makes Perfect: Although it is important to study and prepare for UGC NET-JRF exams, it is equally as important to take practice tests. This will help you get used to taking the actual exam and improve your chances of passing it on first attempt.”
4. Joining Online Courses: There are many online courses that can help candidates prepare for NTA UGC NET-JRF exams. These courses typically provide access to practice questions, study materials, and other resources. By joining BEST RAS Online coaching in jaipur, you can get started on preparing for the exam right away.

Conclusion
There is no one definitive answer to this question since the method of scoring can vary from one examiner to another, depending on their individual preferences and approach. However, some general tips that may help you score well in these exams include: striving for accuracy and comprehensive understanding of the questions, focusing on key concepts while answering questions, taking notes during the UGC Net JRF online courses, and practicing frequently.

Disaster backup/disaster recovery

Database backup
In information technology, backup is the process of copying and archiving the computer data so that one can use it to restore the original after an event of data loss occurs (Mullins, 2012). There are two distinct purposes of backups. One is to recover the data after its loss maybe because of data deletion or corruption. The data loss may be a common experience of the computer users. The second purpose of the backup is to recover the data from the earlier time according to the user-defined data retention policy. There are two divisions of the backups that include the logical and the physical backups (Dafoulas & Ward 2011). The logical backups usually contain the logical data from the database with the Oracle export utility. It is stored in a binary file so as to help in later re-importing to a database using the corresponding Oracle import utility. On the other hand, the physical backup refers to the backup of the physical files that is used for storing and also recovering databases such as the control files and the data files. It is a copy of the files storing database information to another location whether it is on offline storage or a disk.

The database backup tends to form a duplicate of the data when the backup is complete. With a backup, it is easy for an individual to recreate the whole database from the backup in just one step that involves restoring the database. During restoring, it is a process that involves overwriting the existing database or it may create a database in case it does not exist (Dafoulas & Ward 2011). During backup, it is a process that tends to use a lot of storage space for every backup, and it also requires more time so as to completely backup all the operations.

With the Oracle backup, the types of backups include the logical backup, cold backup, and the hot backups. The hot backup is a backup of the data while it is running. Oracle tends to have RMAN which usually ensures the success in the hot backup. A cold backup is a backup that involves the offline physical backup, which is a process that happens when the database is not operating. It is a type of backup that accommodates all of the essential data files and other database components (Snedaker, 2014). On the other side, the logical backup is that backup of the tablespace, schemas, and whole database. Since an organization has a large amount of data, it is essential for the database administrators to use the automatic backup utilities that are available in a database such as ORACLE.

Any of the backup strategies used tends to start with the data repository. The backup data should be stored and organized to a degree. Other types of data backups include the full backup, differential backup, incremental backup, and mirror backup. The differential backup is the backup that includes all the files that changed since the last full backup. The incremental backup is the backup including files that changed in the last backup process (Snedaker, 2014). The full backup refers to the initial process of the backup that includes all the files and folders. Mirror backup is the backup of all files of the data that changed since the last full backup.

Disaster planning
Disaster planning is important as it helps in ensuring the continuation of the business processes if a disaster happens. Disaster is a term that is relative since disasters tend to occur in varying degrees. Disaster planning is essential as it offers an effective solution to use in recovering all the vital business processes (Whitman et al. 2013). The disaster recovery plan tends to offer the procedures for handling emergency situations. In disaster planning, the plan must offer information for the proactive handling of the crisis and must include detailed procedures for communication, executives, investor relations, human resources, and technology management. The plan must also document the procedures, responsibilities, and the checklist to use in managing and controlling the situation following the crisis.

Disaster planning tends to offer a state of readiness that allows prompt personnel response after a disaster occurs. It tends to provide a more efficient and effective recovery process. A disaster recovery plan must be able to accomplish several objectives. These objectives include managing the recovery operation in an effective and organized manner, recovering information and data imperative to the operation of critical applications (Mullins, 2012). It should also assess the damage, repair damage, and activate the impaired computer center. Every business tends to have the responsibility of responding to short or long term disruption of the services. Developing, documenting, implementing and testing the disaster recovery plan enable the business to restore the availability of the critical applications in an organized and timely manner after the occurrence of a disaster.

The advantages of disaster planning are that it results in improved technology. An organization requires improving IT systems so as to support the recovery objectives that you develop in disaster planning. The attention that one pays to recoverability leads to making the IT systems more consistent with each other. Disaster planning also results to improved business process. Since the business processes tend to undergo analysis and scrutiny, the administrators may not help but find areas that need improvement (Whitman et al. 2013). Disaster planning also benefits the organization through fewer disruptions. Because of improved technology, the IT systems are more stable than in the past. When one make changes to the system architecture so as to meet the recovery objectives, the events that used to cause outage do not do so anymore. Disaster planning also offers a competitive advantage because having good disaster recovery plan provides the organization with bragging rights that cab outshines the competitors. Disaster recovery plan tends to allow the organization to claim higher reliability and availability of services.

During disaster planning, it is significant that one should define the strategy to follow when employing the required softness to ensure the principles of detection, prevention, and response to the disaster. Such a strategy tends to define the activities that people will participate in when a disaster occurs, and it has a plan for explaining how to conduct the activities. It is essential for the organization to set the priorities of the processes and operations that they should perform. A disaster recovery plan is essential for the company as it contains the action that will help reduce the impact of the disaster and enable the organization to resumes its operation as fast as possible (Schin, 2014). It is an important aspect of the organization because it helps the organization save a lot of costs that it would incur if it never had a disaster recovery plan.

Importance of integrating backups and disaster planning
Database recovery is an essential aspect of disaster recovery. The purpose of the database backup is so as to safeguard the data in the case that a disruptive event occurs. The disaster planning aims at safeguarding the data and also the physical devices. It is important to integrate database backups and disaster planning as they work as complementary to each other when both of them are not properly implemented. Integrating database backup and disaster planning are important as backup database help in deciding the data to keep a backup for, and disaster planning helps in selecting the suitable backup plan for the physical storage of the data (Schin, 2014). Disaster planning is important as it helps to pinpoint the likely areas for problems. During planning, one need to assign tasks to different people so that everyone can know what is expected of them. Then again, backing up data and storing the copy off site may help to ensure that if a disaster strikes, one can move on without a lot of disruption.

It is important to execute database backup and disaster planning effectively. Failure of effectively executing them can result in a lot of loss to the organization. Without good backup and disaster planning, the organization can lose essential data and even customer data that can be of negative impact on the company (Mullins, 2012). When the two are not properly integrated, it can cause confusion to workers in the organization when an event of disaster happens as employees will not understand what to do in such a situation. Therefore, the damage can be much when the plan and backup are not properly executed.

Ethics and Corporate Responsibility in the Workplace and the World

1: Describe the key characteristics of a stakeholder and determine all the stakeholders within the PharmaCARE scenario.

Stakeholders of a typical organization might include employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and managers (Phillips, 2003). There are several characteristics of a stakeholder of a company, among which include the following. First is that a stakeholder characteristic of a stakeholder is that he/she in one way or the other funds the organization through investing in it. He/she is thus affected by the outcomes or results of the company’s progress or the success or failures of the organization’s projects. Another key characteristic of a stakeholder is that he/she is in the company’s chain of accountability. Decisions made by the company’s officials may affect them directly or indirectly (Phillips, 2003). He/she is also responsible for the company’s good name. He/she is thus responsible for maintaining the company’s good reputation. Among the stakeholders of the PharmaCARE are the CEO, rest of the PharmaCARE’s executives and its Shareholders/stockholders of the enterprise. Others include the healers of the company in Colberia, the Colberians that work for PharmaCARE, the state government of New Jersey, the US Federal government and the communities affected by the lobbying of PharmaCARE.

The following is a justification of why some of the agencies or groups are considered stakeholders of PharmaCARE. One example is the state government in New Jersey. This is a stakeholder since its interested with PharmaCARE describing the state laws are regulations that PharmaCARE is required to comply with, e.g. paying taxes. Similarly, the federal government relates in the same way with PharmaCARE.The healers in Colberia can be considered close stakeholders with PharmaCARE since the facility obtains local remedies from them and possibly markets them. PharmaCARE has also been involved actively in lobbying against many environmental laws. This action has in many ways adversely affected the environment of the United States. It is from this perspective that every citizen of the United States and the federal government of the US become stakeholders of PharmaCARE (Phillips, 2003).

Q2: Analyze the human rights issues presented by PharmaCARE’s treatment of the Colberia’s indigenous population versus that of its executives. Recommend at least three (3) changes PharmaCARE can make to be more ethical going forward.

Various human rights issues arise as regards the running of corporations in the world. It has been determined that many corporations today are expanding their business enterprises. However, they are doing so by erecting branches at less regulated poorer countries where they have the power and audacity of violating human rights in many ways such as polluting the environment through harmful emissions and cutting down trees (Ingulli, 2010). To aggravate the situation, they do so with the cooperation of that countries government, by bribing the top officials. In any case, these corporations’ branches are set up businesses places where the local indigenous people are poor and living in less than standard conditions. The corporations will thus earn labor from less resistance indigenous people who they pay meager wages, another violation of human rights.

An assessment of PharmaCARE case shows prudently that the human rights of the people of Colberia’s have been violated, as regards the United Nations stipulation. This UN disclaimer applied, in this case, says that Transnational Corporations, as well as business Enterprises, have a general obligation to the indigenous people of Colberia. Along with it is the right to equal opportunity and non-discriminatory treatment of the local people (Brenker, 2010). In black and white, it’s evident that PharmaCARE has exploited the people of Colberia in the bid to further its own agenda. For instance, they have taken advantage of the local healers who have been lured into sharing their knowledge about indigenous cures just for free. In another dimension, the workers are reported to be paid meager wages ($1 per day), which make them live in substandard conditions as compared to PharmCARE staff who live lavishly at the expense of local people. These poor people reside in huts which have neither electricity nor clean water. Conversely, their ‘employers’ the executives of PharmaCARE, are living luxuriously in compounds which have access to all essential amenities requires to live a good life and added prestigious amenities such as swimming pools, golf course, and tennis courts (Cory, 2001).

Going forward, I would recommend that PharmaCARE provides transportation means for the benefit of workers. These transportation means will help workers who live far from the premises and also aid in bringing harvested goods from the jungle to the processing area of the organization. That will increase efficiency and remove the burden and tire/exhaustion of employees. Secondly, I recommend that PharmaCARE increases the wages workers. Rather than a dollar per day, it’s ethical that they pay them the same amount hourly. That will help them better their living standards. Lastly, I would recommend that PharmCARE involves itself with corporate social responsibility. For instance, they could reinvest a little of their profits in enhancing Colberia’s current infrastructure. They could also create housing for the workers within the manufacturing plant to better their lives as some may never be able to erect better housing (Brenker, 2010).

Q3: Assess PharmCARE’s environmental initiative against the backdrop of its anti-environmental lobbying efforts and Colberian activities. Support the position

PharmaCARE instigated an initiative by the name We CARE about YOUR world®. This initiative pledges PharmaCARE commitment to the environment but ironically, the company’s lobbying efforts have successfully demeaned the environmental laws and regulations and that of the Superfund tax by CERCLA (Ingulli, 2010). This law imposed heavy taxes and fines on chemical and petroleum firms particularly those that release hazardous substances that jeopardize people and environmental health (Cory, 2001)Apparently, the activities of PharmaCARE in Colberia are seen to contradict their initiative staunchly. We CARE about YOUR world®. Obviously, the company does not care about Colberia and its people. The company distorts the previously fresh environmental and deplorably treats Colberian people. As a matter of fact, PharmaCARE has done nothing good for the benefit of the indigenous people. It has taken advantage of them without caring.

Q4: Decide whether or not PharmaCARE’s actions with respect to the indigenous people of Colberia would be ethical in accordance with each of the following ethical theories:

Utilitarianism
As defined by Shapiro (2011) as a normative ethical theory that distinguishes the right from the wrong solely by judging from the outcomes (consequences). Under this theory, PharmCARE’s activities are not ethical. If so, PharmaCARE actions would have caused happiness to the local people. However, dread is what Colberians suffer.

Deontology
This theory obligates people to do as it obligates them when faced with an ethical dilemma. As such, a person ought to follow his/her obligation to another individual as doing this is what is considered ethically correct (Rainbow, 2002). Following this theory, PharmaCARE actions to the Colberia’s indigenous people cannot be regarded as morally right. The company exploits the indigenous people by paying them meager wages making them lead substandard lives (Cory, 2001).

Virtue Ethics
Virtue ethics are those actions that one does for the good of another by following his/her instincts rather than laws, customs or culture. PharmaCARE officials are short of these virtues and as such, their actions are not ethically correct. Executives have no mercy to the poor people and does nothing keep them motivated for the job. They treat the employees like slaves. Lack of virtual ethics denies the company to be ranked an ethically run organization.

Ethics of care
Ethics of care requires that both parties in play gain something from common activities. However, PharmCARE takes advantage of everything to profit themselves (Brenker, 2010). Indigenous people sacrifice their efforts but end up on the losing side. They earn low wages, and their environment is destroyed (Cory, 2001).

My own moral/ethical compass

After examining the case, I am of the free opinion that PharmaCARE violates the civil rights of the people. They have taken the environment into their hands and made people their working objects. They have no respect for human life and expose them to danger through polluting the environment. They pay meager dues to these people just they are poor and have no power to demand fairness. PharmCARE has to reconsider their CRS status. The executives should understand that caring for the employees is for the best of it too. Employees are like engines of the company and motivating them is the same as re-energizing the engine which makes the vehicle move more swiftly to accomplish the desires of the owner (Brenker, 2010).

Q5: Compare PharmaCARE’s actions with those of at least one (1) real-world company, whose corporate activities led to ethical, environmental, or workplace safety issues and financial loss. Analyze the similarities and differences between PharmaCARE and the company that you chose.

The activities of PharmCARE are likened to those of British Petroleum Company BP sometimes back. British Petroleum was involved in a serious issue which involved spillage of over 30 gallons of crude oil, a situation that has come to be known as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. In this case scenario, 11 lives were lost and some injured. The company had at the time not installed a back-up acoustic switch claiming that it was not cost-effective at the time. The oil spillage made the environment dangerous as people lived in fear of explosions. More so, the environment was polluted. Apparently, poor people had no means to pull out of the area, and BP did nothing about it. The same case applies to PharmaCARE scenario. They built a large manufacturing plant in Africa took away the land, polluted the environment and exploited the indigenous people just because they were poor, desperate and short of knowledge of their human rights. They work for a large company but under dangerous conditions. They work long hours yet receive unfair wages. They, however, are not aware of ways to demand their rights. Similarly, the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill led to the damage of countless miles of shoreline which made fishing impossible. Fish processors had to shut down meaning that the local people were left without means of securing the daily bread (Rainbow, 2002).

British Petroleum redesigned its corporate insignia of going green that suggested that “the company was looking past oil and gas toward an eco-friendly future of renewable energy.” That is just similar with what PharmaCARE initiated through erecting a logo which said “WE CARE about YOUR health®. These two logos of the two companies stated that they wanted to change and in future enjoy the reputation as caring, ethical and well-run companies through producing high-quality products that save lives and through environmental friendly ways (Ingulli, 2010). Comparing BP and PharmaCARE, it can be found that both ended up devolved into unethical practices. BP, for instance, failed to acquire equipment that would have doubled safety for the oil rig. Instead, BP officials claimed they did not need such equipment. They claimed that the cost of it was too much and following the fact that this was not a required by the government, they did not purchase it. The same case applies to PharmaCARE, which does not want to feel the cost of social responsibility. They use their large company status to acquire land in Africa to set up a plant at the expense of the little power of the indigenous people.